6.5 飞船要素(中英对照)

Freemangl讨论 | 贡献2009年8月4日 (二) 17:38的版本 c) 对接口
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a) Wings / pods

a) 翼/分离舱(pods)

– Wings are discouraged, especially as most people seem to use them to create aerodynamic / modern aircrafts designs. In general, if your ship looks like a modern aircraft with a few tweaks to look sci-fi, it is wrong.

  • 我们不鼓励使用机翼,尤其是现在,好像有许多人使用机翼去制作符合空气动力学的现代飞机设计。一般来讲,如果你的船看起来像一架比较科幻的现代飞机,那就错了。

– Wings are okay when they have a purpose other than aerodynamics. The game is set more than 10 000 years in the future. All ships use side thrusters and/or anti-gravity to maneuver, aerodynamic designs are out-of-place. But if you use wings to add thrusters, hardpoints, gears and pods ( or to connect to other modules ), they can be fine. Additionally, small winglets/stabilizers with no other discernable purpose are okay to be used as greeble (pointless, extraneous detail) as long as they aren't a major portion of the model, and if the model wasn't designed for pure space usage in mind.

  • 机翼不一定要符合空气动力学。这个游戏的发生背景设定在未来10000年后。所有船都使用侧推进器和/或反引力来控制运动,空气动力学设计反而不合适。但是如果你把翼用在推进器、挂载点、起落架、荚舱(或者用来连接其他模块),这是可以的。另外,如果模型不是只纯粹用于太空,小翼/水平尾翼上有些突起(没有实际意义的细节)只要不让人觉得是模型的主要部分,都是允许使用的。

– Wings should not be animated / deployable. They can however be modular. For example, you can make a design that works with 2 or 4 wings.

  • 翼不应该是能活动的/可展开的。但它们可以是“可更换模块”(例如:你可以设计一种可更换2翼或4翼的船)

– It is recommended to attach pods or other modules at the tips of a “wing”. For example, the“Imperator” corvette has an almost perfect design regarding wings / pods:

  • 推荐在翼的外末端附上荚舱或其他模块。例如:“统治者”级反潜轻巡洋舰在翼/荚舱方面就有着近乎完美的设计.

– Make sure the shape of the wing, especially if it is going downwards, is not conflicting with the gears ( if the wing's minimum Z coordinate is lower than the gear's, that means that when landed on the ground, the wing tip will be under the ground ! ).

  • 要注意翼的外形,尤其如果是朝下的,那不能与起落架有冲突(如果翼的最小Z坐标低于起落架,那意味着当船着陆时,翼尖会戳进地面!)。


Illustration 11: "Imperator" corvette design by Koshime

图11: Koshime设计的"统治者"级反潜轻巡洋舰

– Pods ( such as the ones shown on the Imperator ) can be animated ( rotate around the length axis ) with a rotation speed that is a function of the acceleration / thrusting force. In that case, each pod should be separated into its own object, and you must ensure that the pod rotation will look coherent with the ship design ( and especially how the pod is attached to the hull of the ship ).

  • 荚舱(诸如上图中统治者的)可以回旋活动(顺长度轴旋转),旋转周期与加速/推进力成正比关系。在那种情况下,每个荚舱应该分成不同对象(object),你必须保证荚舱的旋转与船的设计密切耦合(尤其是荚舱与船壳相连的方式)。

b) Landing gears

b) 起落架

– Make sure that the wings or other parts of your ship do fall under the gear's Z min position ( contact with the ground ).

  • 要确保翼或船的其他部分不要低于起落架的最小高度值Z(即不与地面接触)。

– The general rule is that any ship under a length of 250m requires landing gears. Bigger ships will likely not land in garages in stations or on planets, but either hover on planets, or dock to space stations via docking ports.

  • 一般情况下,长度在250米以下的飞船需要起落架。更大的船则很可能不会停在空间站的泊位里,或行星上,但是可以在行星表面翱翔,或者与空间站对接。

– Make the landing gear configuration coherent, and stable. Use at least 3 gears as far from the center of mass as possible ( remember: the closer gears are to the center of mass, the less stable the thing will be ). 4 gears configurations are also good.

  • 确保起落架部分与船体的连接是紧密而稳固的。用至少三个起落架,远离船的重心,形成三角支撑结构(记住,起落架分布越靠近飞船重心,飞船在着陆时就越容易倒)。四角支撑结构也是不错的。

– For each gear, use as little objects as possible. For gears animations, only use translations and rotations. The number of gears allowed for a ship is a function of the size of the ship: a single fighter should probably only use gears that translate back into the hull; a bigger ship ( up to frigates ) can use more complex gears with animations. But in any case, don't use more than 3 or 4 objects per gear.

  • 制作起落架时,对象(object)尽量少。至于起落架的运动表现(动画),则只能使用平移(translations)和旋转(rotations)。各船体的起落架数量和船体尺寸是相关的:单人战机应该只用伸缩到外壳中的起落架;更大的船(最大到护卫舰)可以使用更多可运动的复合起落架。但是在任何情况下,每个起落架不要超过3或4个对象。

– Merge the gears together into one single object if they all share the same animation, for example if the retract back into the hull vertically. The fact that the geometry is “dissociated” ( gears are not connected together ) is no problem. Animating one unified gear object is faster than doing it for 3 separate gears.

  • 如果起落架使用相同的运动表现形式,则把起他们合并到一个独立对象中,例如:垂直缩回船壳内。虽然几何上是“分离(dissociated)”的(起落架没有连接到一起),但不影响,应该合为一个对象。一个起落架(对象)的运动要比3个分离部分快得多。

– Remember that gears must be textured like any other part of the ship, so reserve room for them in the UV maps.

  • 记住,起落架上的贴图必须看起来像是船体的一部分,因此要为它们预留UV贴图的空间。

c) Docking ports

c) 对接口

The bigger ships ( medium-size and large-size ) will probably not fit in the garages of most stations. For this reason, all ships longer than 50m should use docking ports. A ship will approach a station at a specifc point, and once in a good position, the docking port will open and an arm ( a long cylindrical corridor ) deploy into the station.


– There should at least one docking port, in the front of the ship.

  • 飞船至少要有一个对接口,且位于前端。

– The design of this docking port should be similar to what you see in the next illustration. A roughly circular shape.

  • 对接口的设计应该类似于下方插图中的样式。大体应该是环状截面。

– The diameter of the docking port should match those of the hardpoints. For example, the one on the Makon has a diameter of 7.5m ( MK1 ). So you can make docking ports more or less big depending on the size of your ship, and the available surface on the front. The bigger ships could easily have one docking port of 30m, or a set of smaller docking ports, all located at the front.

  • 对接口的直径应该与挂载点匹配。例如:Makon有一个直径7.5米 (MK1)的对接口。那么你可以根据船的大小和前端面积来决定对接口的大小。更大的船可以轻易的拥有一个直径达30米的对接口,或者是一系列的小对接口,都位于前端。

– You do not have to model the arm / corridor, this will be done separately in-engine.

  • 你不一定非得设计从对接口中伸出的臂/走廊,这将由游戏引擎完成。

– The docking port should be separate into its own object, so that it can be animated ( open ). You do not have to work on the animation, it will be very standard ( the docking port will rotate on one side ).

  • 对接口应该分别成为独立的对象,以此完成运动效果(开启)。你无需制作它的运动表现,它的运动会非常完美(对接口会自行旋开)。

– It is acceptable to not model any docking port at all only if you reserve some room for such a docking port on the front of your ship. In that case, we will use one of our standard docking ports ( such as the one on the Makon ) and place it on your ship in the finalization / validation Step.

  • 如果你没有设计对接口,也可以,只要在飞船前方留出其空间即可。这样一来,我们会用一个标准接口(参照Makon的那个)在定稿前安装到你的飞船上。

– Allowed docking ports range from LMK4 to MK3. Under LMK4, the corridor would be too small for humans to walk; over MK3 is probably overkill.

  • 允许对接口大小处于LMK4到MK3(2M~30M)之间。如在LMK4以下,人走在回廊里行走就过于狭窄;而在MK3以上多就过大了。


2米 4米 7.5米 15米 30米


Illustration 12: Docking port on the front of the Makon, by JoeB


d) Thrusters

d) 推进器

– Shape: All thrusters must have a general circular shape. It is possible, however, to mount those thrusters on larger shapes that can be rounded, square, rectangular, etc.. See the following image of the back of the Flamberge for an example:

  • 外形:全部推进器喷口必须整体呈环形,当然安装推进器的部分可以是圆的或方的。见下图:


Illustration 13: Back thrusters of a 5-Km long ship: the Flamberge ( model by Supernova )

图13:长达5000米船的推进器: Flamberge (Supernova制作)

– A thruster should not be too short neither too long, maybe 50 to 100% of the circular diameter.

  • 推进器制作的不要太长也不要太短,大约在环直径的50%至100%之间即可。

– Types of thrusters: back ( main propulsion ) thrusters are required on all the ships. Side thrusters ( front, top, bottom, left, right ) are required to be geometrically modeled for any ship over 100m long. For ships under this category, this is optional ( the thrusters then have to be painted as holes in the textures ), but the bigger the ship, the stronger it is advised.

  • 推进器的类型:后推进器(提供前进的主要推力)每艘船都必须有。大于100米的飞船必须设计侧推进器(船头/船上表面/船下表面/船右侧/船左侧),小于此尺寸的飞船则随意(这些推进器有时可以使用材质贴图表达为船身上的“洞” ),但是更大的船则最好把这些附加推进器都布置完备。

– You do not have to worry about particle effects or colors of thrusters as far as the game is concerned since everything will be handled by the 3D engine. You can of course use those for “beauty” renders. The model or textures have to be made as if the ship was at rest, for example you should not include any glowing effect in the textures.

  • 你无需担心推进器的粒子表现/颜色,之后游戏本身会使用3D引擎接手这些处理。不过你当然可以使用它们来渲染效果。但是,如果船处于静止不运行状态,那模型或材质就不能包含任何发光效果。

– For information, the color of the thruster effect will depend on the type of propulsion system mounted on the ship. Most colors will be ranging from red / orange to purple / blue.

  • 根据资料,推进器喷口的发光颜色效果类型对应于于船上推进系统的类型。大多数颜色可以归为红色/橙色到紫色/蓝色。

– Amount of back thrusters: please do not use too many thrusters. Small ( < 50m ) ships should have 1-3 thrusters ( typically, one in the back, 2 on the wings ). Medium ( 50m-250m ) ships could use 6-15 thrusters. For large ( >250m ) ships, 6-30 is a good number, the larger the ship, the more you are allowed. If you have a medium or large ship with lots ( tens ) of small thrusters, please consider using a smaller amount of large thrusters instead.

  • 后推进器的数量:请不要使用太多推进器。小船(<50米)应该有1-3个推进器(例如:一个推进器在后方,两个推进器在翼尖)。中型船(50米-250米)可以使用6-15个推进器。至于大船(>250米),6-30个是合适的数量,更大的船,则允许你使用更多。如果做了中型或大型船,装了太多小推进器的,请考虑使用更少的大推进器来取代它们。

– For side or front thrusters, use 2 to 4 thrusters per side ( not set in stone ), remember to place them more or less symmetrically compared to the center of mass of the ship.

  • 对于侧推进器或前推进器,每边可使用2-4个(可自行变通),记住:放置位置尽量与飞船重心相对称。

– Location of thrusters: be careful with how you place thrusters – in particular, placing a hangar door close to a thruster, or a part of the hull of the ship a bit behind a thruster, is a big no-no. On smaller ships, you can place them on wings. Also, please take into account the center of mass of the ship when you place side thrusters ( left / right / top / bottom ). For example, if you're going to place the left/right side thrusters on the back of the ship, you'll need some near the front of the ship too, to counter-act the spin. It is strongly advised to place thrusters symmetrically compared to the center of mass of the ship.

  • 推进器的定位:你在选择推进器的安放位置时要注意——尤其注意,机库离推进器过近,或者船体的某部分稍稍挡住推进器的喷口,这都是绝对不允许的。在较小的船上,你可以把推进器设置在翼上。同时也得把侧推进器以船身中心为轴心布置(上下/左右)。例如,你在船的后方左右两侧布置了一对侧推进器,那你就必须在船的前方左右两侧也布置一对,以此达到前后使用相反的推力使船原地转向。总之在布置侧推进器的时候要仔细考虑到船的运动受力结构。


Illustration 14: Example of location of side thrusters on the Rapture, model by Irashi


– Side thrusters names: front thrusters are retro thrusters; top/bottom thrusters are attitude thrusters; left/right thrusters are lateral thrusters.

  • 侧推进器名称:前推进器为“制动推进器” ;上/下推进器为“姿态推进器” :左/右推进器为“横向推进器”。

e) Cargo / containers

e) 货物/集装箱

– None of the designs should assume that containers will be visible from outside the S/S. All containers will be internally transported into the hull, or inside cargo modules. If the ship is empty and does not transport anything, its “visible” design should not be affected. What this means is that if you're designing a hauler, don't expect all the containers it transports to be visible from an external observer outside the ship.

  • 集装箱不应该暴露在外,飞船/空间站的设计都不能从外面看到内部的集装箱。所有集装箱都会传送到船壳或货仓的内部。即使这是一艘空船,也无法从外部看出任何的不同。也就是,如果你设计了一艘运输船,船的外部观察者不能从外面看到它所装运的集装箱。

– Containers will only be shown while in transit, like when exchanging goods between two ships in space, or inside stations / structures. Containers should not have a design specific to what type of goods they'll be transporting: the same container 3D model will be used for transporting metals or manufactured goods, for example.

  • 集装箱只会在搬入船体的过程中看到,比如当两艘船在太空中或空间站、设施中调换货物时。集装箱应该不会因其所运送的货物类型而有什么特殊设计:例如,无论装载金属原料还是工业制成品,所用集装箱都是一样的。

– Cargo modules will increase the maximum amount of goods a ship can transport, but no cargo module should be specifically designed with a specific type of good in mind; like for the containers, the same cargo modules will be used for transporting metals, resources, fuel, liquids or manufactured goods.

  • 货物模型的多少基于飞船可以运送货物的最大数量,但是不用为货物种类特别设计货物模型,和集装箱一样,相同的货物模型会用于装运金属、矿物、燃料、液体或制成品等等。

f) Cockpits

f) 驾驶舱

All small ships must have a recognizable cockpit, usually made of a glass material, similar to what you find in modern aircrafts. It is advised to add small windows to shuttles/corvettes to give a better sense of scale. 所有小型船只都必须有一个明显可辨的驾驶舱,通常使用玻璃材料,类似于现代飞机。我们建议在穿梭机/微型巡洋舰上安装舷窗,以实现更好的比例感。

The cockpit material must not be transparent: do not model the inside of the cockpit or of the ship, as it will not be seen anyway. This is because modeling and texturing a cockpit for all ships would double the amount of work (and reduce the polycount budget for the "important" part of the ship, seen from outside). We might introduce cockpit interiors one day in an expansion, but until then, do not waste your time on it.


g) Bridges

g) 舰桥

All medium to large ships must have a recognizable bridge / observation bay. This is controversial especially on combat ships due to the fact that it would be preferable to keep the command center deep buried in the core of the hull instead, but we feel that: 所有中型至大型的船必须有一个明显可辨的舰桥/对外观察口。这是惹人争议的,尤其是战舰的指挥舱深埋在船壳下会更好的保护指挥控制中心。但我们认为:

– in such a futuristic universe, transparent glass material can be as resistant as the material used for the hull.

  • 在如此未来风格的宇宙中,透明的玻璃材料和船壳会一样坚固。

– if the hull breaks (glass or not), you're in big trouble anyway.

  • 如果船壳破损(不论是玻璃还是其他),反正也会有麻烦的。

– a bridge gives a better sense of scale on the ship It is advised to place the bridge on the top and near the back of the ship. Additional bridges / observation bays can be placed everywhere else (under the ship, on its very front, etc.. ). On noncombat ships, use and abuse of observation bays.

  • 舰桥能赋予船身以更好的比例感。建议把舰桥置于船后半部分的顶部。此外,副舰桥/观察口可以安放到任意位置(船的下方,船头最前端...等)。至于非战斗船只,随便安置观察口。

The shape of the bridge can be prominent (see the Flamberge) or discreet (see the Galactos), but it must break the hull silhouette enough to be recognizable at far distances.

  • 舰桥的外形可以是显眼的(见飞船:Flamberge)或者是保守的(见飞船:Galactos),但是它必须凸显于船壳之外,并能在船的远距离剪影中足够的表现出来。

h) Other details

h) 其他细节

– Windows / lights: use as many windows, observation bays and lights on the hull as possible. Those are the best way to giving a sense of scale and dimension to a spaceship, as they give points of comparison that humans can understand. Do not worry about them being a “weak” point, the game is set 10 000 years in the future, glass can be as resistant as steel.

  • 窗口/灯:尽可能在船壳上使用多个窗口,观察口,灯。那是表现太空船规模和大小的最佳方法,这样就给了人们进行感受的参照。不要担心它们会成为“弱”点,游戏设定在10000年后的未来,玻璃会像钢一般硬。

– The general rule is that industrial ships should have little amount of windows; military ships, a medium amount of windows; civilian ships, a large amount of windows.

  • 普通规则是:工业船的窗数量应较少;军用船-中等数量的窗户;民用船-大量的窗户。

– Glass textures ( cockpits, windows ) should not be transparent, have a high amount of specular, and a self-illumination map. If there are many windows in a row on the hull, think about lighting on / off some of those randomly ( a complete row of windows all lit would look un-natural ).

  • 玻璃材质(Glass textures)(驾驶舱,窗户)应不透明,要使用高度的镜面效果和自发光贴图(self-illumination map)。如果在船壳上排列着有许多窗户,那可以考虑把它们做成明暗不一的效果(lighting on / off some of those randomly) (如果这时全部窗户都亮着,看起来会不太自然)。